Structural Analysis

The basic aim of the structural design is to build a structure, which is safe, fulfilling the intended purpose during its estimated life span, economical in terms of initial and maintenance cost, durable and also maintaining a good aesthetic appearance. A building is considered to be structurally sound, if the individual elements and the building as a whole satisfy the criteria for strength, stability and serviceability and in seismic areas additional criteria for ductility and energy absorption capabilities. The overall building must be strong enough to transfer all loads through the structure to the ground without collapsing or losing structural integrity by rupture of the material at the critical sections, by transformation of the whole or parts into mechanisms or by instability. This strength criterion is valid for all loads that will normally be applied to the building during its lifetime.
A building must also be stable so that the building as a whole or parts of it should not lose static equilibrium as a rigid body. Nepal lies in seismically active region. It is located in the boundary of the two colliding tectonic plates- the Indian plate and the Tibetan plate. Records of earthquakes are available in Nepal since 1255 A.D. Those records reveal that Nepal was hit by 18 major earthquakes since then, resulting in huge loss of life and property. In high risk seismic areas, structures should be ductile and capable of dissipating energy through inelastic actions.